[LABOUR LAW] Compensation for dismissal without real and serious grounds: the tumultuous saga of the “Macron scale”

By order n° 2017-1387 of 22 September 2017, the government established a scale to evaluate the compensation that a company must pay to an employee if his/her dismissal is declared to be without real and serious grounds. By virtue of this said “Macron” scale, the amount of compensation granted by judges must obligatorily fall between…

[ENERGY] France accelerates its energy transition on commercial and industrial buildings

In a quick succession, two recently adopted legislations will boost the transition towards more environmentally friendly C&I buildings. A brief insight.   I. New standards for energy efficiency in “tertiary” buildings   As for buildings in the “tertiary” sector (which includes hotels, shopping centres, office buildings), the Decree of July 23, 2019 “regarding the duties…

[ENERGY] Ups and Downs of French Energy Policy

The demonstrations of the “yellow vests” movement, initially focusing on the increase of environmental taxes on fuel, and recent demonstrations for Climate have again brought the environmental and energy issues into the bright light of public debate. Some weeks before protests and marches began, the French Government had unveiled the main directions of the “multiannual programming…

[RESTRUCTURING] Crypto-currencies in insolvency proceedings in France: How to deal with highly volatile assets?

Born in the early 2010’s, crypto-assets are real UFOs in the French legal landscape. Defined by French Monetary and Financial Code as “any instrument containing in digital form non-monetary value units that may be retained or transferred in order to acquire a good or service but that does not represent a claim towards the issuer”[1],…

[M&A] Attribution of knowledge – Obligation to provide information, fraud and fraudulent retention of information – but who actually possesses the information?

It happens frequently that following the acquisition of a business, the acquirer, dissatisfied with the deal, attempts to obtain compensation for damages on the grounds that seller withheld decisive information. Another frequently used strategy is to try to have the contract annulled on the grounds of fraud or fraudulent retention of information. The acquirer is…